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What Goes Beyond This Dichotomisation Between Information and Knowledge?

According to Zins (2005), ‘data’ is a set of symbols that represent empirical perceptions or empirical raw material, ‘information’ is a set of symbols that represent empirical knowledge, while ‘knowledge’ is a set of symbols that represent thoughts, which the individual justifiably believes are true or valid. There is even a higher entity – ‘wisdom’, the capacity to choose goals or make informed decisions consistent with one’s values within a larger social context (Logan, 2010, as cited in Boehnert, n. d.).

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